Incidental diagnosis of renal tuberculosis in an adolescent submitted to video laparoscopic nefrectomy

Abstract

Leticia Alves Antunes, Carolina Talini, Bruna Cecilia de Carvalho, Antonio Ernesto da Silveira, Antonio Carlos Moreira Amarante

Genitourinary tuberculosis is rare in children. The aim of this study is to describe an unusual case of renal tuberculosis in a 16 years old girl, diagnosed with Hinman Syndrome and chronic renal failure. During a hematuria investigation the cystourethrogram revealed grade V right vesicoureteral reflux and small bladder. Ultrasonography demonstrated various cysts in left kidney with irregular content, suggesting dysplastic multicystic kidney. Scintigraphy showed functional exclusion of the left kidney. Total laparoscopic nephrectomy was proposed. Gregoir right ureteral reimplantation and Mitrofanoff mechanism using the distal left ureter were also indicated. During surgery presence of multiple cysts in the left kidney with caseous aspect, left ureter obstruction with caseous content in the lumen and bladder mucosa with friable and thickened wall were found. Histopathological study revealed chronic necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Mantoux tuberculin skin test was strongly reactive, and family history was positive for pulmonary tuberculosis 10 years earlier. This paper shows the importance of bringing extrapulmonary tuberculosis to the roll of differential diagnosis of hematuria. Early treatment is important to avoid disease progression with functional loss of the organs as happened in this case.

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