Perspective - (2024) Volume 11, Issue 3

Genetic syndromes associated with oligomeganephronia in pediatric patients

Scott Hill*
*Correspondence: Scott Hill, Department of Urology, University of London, London, United Kingdom, Email:

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Oligomeganephronia is a rare congenital renal anomaly characterized by a reduced number of nephrons, each of which is enlarged. While it can occur as an isolated condition, it is also associated with several genetic syndromes that affect renal development. Understanding these syndromes and their implications is essential for accurate diagnosis, prognosis and management in pediatric patients. Oligomeganephronia is characterized by a reduced number of nephrons, typically less than half of the normal complement, accompanied by enlarged nephrons. This anomaly can lead to renal insufficiency, hypertension and proteinuria in affected individuals. While the exact etiology of oligomeganephronia remains unclear, it is thought to result from abnormal renal development during gestation.

Branchio-Oto-Renal (BOR) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by branchial arch anomalies, hearing loss, and renal abnormalities, including oligomeganephronia. Mutations in the EYA1 gene have been implicated in BOR syndrome, disrupting normal renal development and leading to oligomeganephronia. Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and genitourinary anomalies, including renal agenesis, hypoplasia, or dysplasia. Oligomeganephronia may occur in association with Fraser syndrome due to disruptions in renal morphogenesis during embryonic development. Townes-Brocks Syndrome (TBS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by anal anomalies, hand malformations, and renal anomalies, including duplex kidneys, hydronephrosis, or oligomeganephronia. Mutations in the SALL1 gene have been identified in individuals with TBS, affecting renal development and contributing to oligomeganephronia.

Renal-coloboma syndrome is characterized by renal anomalies, optic nerve colobomas and other ocular abnormalities. Oligomeganephronia may occur as part of this syndrome, resulting from disruptions in early kidney development. Gordon syndrome, also known as distal arthrogryposis type 3, is characterized by congenital contractures of the hands and feet, facial anomalies, and renal anomalies, including oligomeganephronia. While the genetic basis of Gordon syndrome remains unclear, it is thought to involve mutations in genes associated with muscle and connective tissue development. Children with genetic syndromes associated with oligomeganephronia may present with a wide range of clinical features, including renal anomalies, facial dysmorphisms, limb abnormalities and ocular anomalies. Diagnosis typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, including medical history, physical examination, and imaging studies such as renal ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), or Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Genetic testing may also be indicated to confirm the underlying genetic syndrome and provide accurate genetic counseling.

Management of oligomeganephronia in children with genetic syndromes involves a multidisciplinary approach aimed at addressing renal complications, managing associated anomalies and optimizing long- term outcomes. Regular monitoring of renal function, blood pressure, and growth parameters is essential for detecting and managing complications such as renal insufficiency, hypertension and growth restriction. Treatment of associated anomalies such as hearing loss, limb abnormalities, or ocular anomalies may improve quality of life and functional outcomes in affected individuals.

In cases of severe renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to maintain adequate renal function and improve survival. The prognosis for children with genetic syndromes associated with oligomeganephronia varies depending on the severity of renal involvement, the presence of associated anomalies, and the timeliness of intervention. Early diagnosis, comprehensive management and ongoing support are essential for optimizing outcomes and improving quality of life in affected individuals.


In conclusion, genetic syndromes associated with oligomeganephronia represent a diverse group of disorders characterized by renal anomalies, facial dysmorphisms, limb abnormalities and ocular anomalies. Accurate diagnosis, genetic counseling, and multidisciplinary management are essential for providing optimal care to affected children and their families. By understanding the clinical features, genetic etiology, diagnosis and management of these syndromes, healthcare providers can effectively identify and manage oligomeganephronia in pediatric patients, improving outcomes and quality of life for affected individuals.

Author Info

Scott Hill*
Department of Urology, University of London, London, United Kingdom

Received: 05-Jun-2024, Manuscript No. PUCR-24-137999; , Pre QC No. PUCR-24-137999; Editor assigned: 07-Jun-2024, Pre QC No. PUCR-24-137999; Reviewed: 21-Jun-2024, QC No. PUCR-24-137999; Revised: 28-Jun-2024, Manuscript No. PUCR-24-137999; Published: 05-Jul-2024, DOI: 10.14534/j-pucr.20222675653

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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