Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in pediatric patients: A case report and literature review

Abstract

Carolina Talini, Leticia Alves Antunes, Bruna Cecilia de Carvalho, Douglas Fagundes Teixeira, Michael Malca Sepúlveda, Murilo da Silva Padilha, Maria Helena Camargo Peralta del Valle

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) is a rare and severe variation of chronic pyelonephritis characterized by suppurative destruction of renal parenchyma and its substitution with chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Male, 8 years old, admitted to the pediatric urology service at 7 years of age, with bladder and renal lithiasis. First symptoms started when he was 2 years old but presented no relapse until he turned 7 years old. During two years he had recurrence of renal lithiasis and underwent multiple surgical procedures. He remained asymptomatic for a short period of time and when presented fever and urinary symptoms again and underwent CT scanning that demonstrated left kidney enlargement associated with calculi and air bubbles in its interior, suggesting xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Uretherostomy was performed and the patient had good clinical improvement. Renal exclusion was documented through scintigraphy and total left nephrectomy was performed, with a large amount of pus drained. Histopathology confirmed XGPN diagnosis. One year after surgery, there has been no recurrent renal lithiasis or urinary tract infection. Despite being a rare condition in children, XGPN has great importance as it can be often confused with pediatric renal tumours. Early diagnosis is important in order to promote better survival and clinical outcomes.

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